Simple sequence repeats (SSR) and their flanking regions in the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes were sequenced in order to reveal DNA sequence variation. This information was used to gain new insights into phylogenetic relationships among species in the genus Oryza. Seven mitochondrial and five chloroplast SSR loci equal to or longer than ten mononucleotide repeats were chosen from known rice mitochondrial and chloroplast genome sequences. A total of 50 accessions of Oryza that represented six different diploid genomes and three different allopolyploid genomes of Oryza species were analyzed. Many base substitutions and deletions/insertions were identified in the SSR loci as well as their flanking regions. Of mononucleotide SSR, G (or C) repeats were more variable than A (or T) repeats. Results obtained by chloroplast and mitochondrial SSR analyses showed similar phylogenetic relationships among species, although chloroplast SSR were more informative because of their higher sequence diversity. The CC genome is suggested to be the maternal parent for the two BBCC genome species (O. punctata and O. minuta) and the CCDD species O. latifolia, based on the high level of sequence conservation between the diploid CC genome species and these allotetraploid species. This is the first report of phylogenetic analysis among plant species, based on mitochondrial and chloroplast SSR and their flanking sequences.