Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) are intracellular channel proteins that mediate Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are involved in many biological processes and diseases. IP(3)Rs are differentially regulated by a variety of cytosolic proteins, but their regulation by ER lumenal protein(s) remains largely unexplored. In this study, we found that ERp44, an ER lumenal protein of the thioredoxin family, directly interacts with the third lumenal loop of IP(3)R type 1 (IP(3)R1) and that the interaction is dependent on pH, Ca(2+) concentration, and redox state: the presence of free cysteine residues in the loop is required. Ca(2+)-imaging experiments and single-channel recording of IP(3)R1 activity with a planar lipid bilayer system demonstrated that IP(3)R1 is directly inhibited by ERp44. Thus, ERp44 senses the environment in the ER lumen and modulates IP(3)R1 activity accordingly, which should in turn contribute to regulating both intralumenal conditions and the complex patterns of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations.