Purpose: To study the relation between preoperative macular changes and surgical outcomes in vitreomacular traction syndrome.
Design: Prospective study.
Methods: We prospectively examined 14 eyes of 13 patients (aged 48 to 82 years; mean 66.1) with vitreomacular traction syndrome using optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after vitreous surgery.
Results: OCT demonstrated two types of partial posterior vitreous detachment: incomplete V-shaped detachment in 10 eyes (group 1) and partial detachment temporal to the fovea but attached nasally in 4 eyes (group 2). Preoperative OCT showed foveal retinal detachment in all eyes in group 1; the detached retina was intact in 2 eyes and edematous with (6 eyes) or without (2 eyes) cystic changes. After surgery, these 10 eyes had a normal foveal configuration accompanied by visual improvement. In group 2, 3 of the 4 eyes had prominent cystoid macular edema (CME) without foveal retinal detachment before surgery. After surgery, 2 eyes developed a full-thickness macular hole, 1 had persistent CME, and 1 developed macular atrophy. The visual acuity decreased in 2 eyes and remained the same in 2 eyes.
Conclusions: Two types of vitreous traction develop in vitreomacular traction syndrome: an incomplete V-shaped posterior vitreous detachment that leads to foveal retinal detachment, the surgical outcome of which is favorable, and partial posterior vitreous detachment temporal to the fovea in which prominent CME developed, which may result in a macular hole or macular atrophy postoperatively.