This study was carried out to determine the effect of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) type 1, 2, and 3 channels, on cardiorespiratory reflexes, pulmonary C fiber afferents, and isolated pulmonary capsaicin-sensitive neurons. In anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats, intravenous bolus injection of 2-APB elicited the pulmonary chemoreflex responses, characterized by apnea, bradycardia, and hypotension. After perineural treatment of both cervical vagi with capsaicin to block the conduction of C fibers, 2-APB no longer evoked any of these reflex responses. In open-chest and artificially ventilated rats, 2-APB evoked an abrupt and intense discharge in vagal pulmonary C fibers in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulation of C fibers by 2-APB was attenuated but not abolished by capsazepine, a selective antagonist of the TRPV1, which completely blocked the response to capsaicin in these C fiber afferents. In isolated pulmonary capsaicin-sensitive neurons, 2-APB concentration dependently evoked an inward current that was partially inhibited by capsazepine but almost completely abolished by ruthenium red, an effective blocker of all TRPV channels. In conclusion, 2-APB evokes a consistent and distinct stimulatory effect on pulmonary C fibers in vivo and on isolated pulmonary capsaicin-sensitive neurons in vitro. These results establish the functional evidence demonstrating that TRPV1, V2, and V3 channels are expressed on these sensory neurons and their terminals.