Transport kinetics have been examined in erythrocyte anion transporter AE1 that has been chemically modified to convert glutamate 681 to an alcohol (E681OH AE1). Outward conductive Cl(-) flux in E681OH AE1 is inhibited by removal of extracellular Cl(-); this effect is the opposite of that in native AE1 and is consistent with coupled electrogenic 2:1 Cl(-)/Cl(-) exchange. A second Cl(-) binding/transport site is also suggested by the characteristics of (35)SO(4)(2-) flux in E681OH AE1: bilateral and cis Cl(-), which are normally inhibitory, accelerate (35)SO(4)(2-) flux. These effects would be expected if Cl(-) binds to a second transport site on SO(4)(2-)-loaded E681OH AE1, thereby allowing Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-) cotransport. Alternatively, the data can be explained without proposing Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-) cotransport if the rate-limiting event for (35)SO(4)(2-)/SO(4)(2-) exchange is external SO(4)(2-) release, and the binding of external Cl(-) accelerates SO(4)(2-) release. With either interpretation, these data indicate that E681OH AE1 has a binding/transport site for Cl(-) that is distinct from the main transport site. The effects of graded modification of E681 or inhibition by H(2)DIDS are consistent with the idea that the new Cl(-) binding site is on the same E681OH-modified subunit of the AE1 dimer as the normal transport site.