Two actinomycete strains, LK2-10T and LK2-5, which produced single, non-motile spores, were isolated from peat swamp forest soil in Yala Province, Thailand. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic position of these strains. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of these strains coincided with those of the genus Micromonospora. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences also indicated that these strains should be classified in the genus Micromonospora and clearly separated from their closest relative, Micromonospora nigra DSM 43818T. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and physiological and biochemical properties indicated that these strains were distinguished from all recognized Micromonospora species. These strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Micromonospora eburnea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LK2-10T (=JCM 12345T=PCU 238T=DSM 44814T=TISTR 1531T).