Incretins are hormones released by nutrients from the GI tract. They amplify glucose-induced insulin release. By raising circulating incretin levels, oral glucose provokes a higher insulin response than that resulting from intravenous glucose. The two most important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In patients with type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is decreased, mainly due to loss of the GIP-regulated second phase of insulin secretion, and because of a decreased secretion of GLP-1. In addition to its insulinotropic effect, GLP-1 inhibits glucagon release, prolongs gastric emptying, and leads to decreases in body-weight, all of which explain the marked antidiabetogenic effect of this incretin hormone.