GIP as a potential therapeutic agent?

Horm Metab Res. Nov-Dec 2004;36(11-12):859-66. doi: 10.1055/s-2004-826176.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is released from K-cells in the gut after meal ingestion, and acts in concert with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. While derivatives of GLP-1 are under active investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the case is different for GIP. Indeed, the insulinotropic effect of GIP is almost absent in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, the unfavourable pharmacokinetic profile of native GIP obviates its clinical application. Different analogues of GIP exhibiting prolonged stability and enhanced biological potency have been generated in order improve the anti-diabetic properties of GIP. However, glucose-normalisation, as is typically observed during the intravenous administration of GLP-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes, has not yet been achieved with GIP or its derivatives. Since GIP appears to play a role in lipid physiology and elevated levels of GIP have been associated with obesity, antagonising GIP action has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for obesity. This concept has recently been reinforced by the observation that GIP receptor knock-out mice are protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity. However, eliminating the effect of endogenous GIP may at the same time impair postprandial insulin secretion, thereby severely disturbing glucose homeostasis. Therefore, therapeutic strategies based on either augmenting or antagonising GIP action are far from being established alternatives for the future therapy of type 2 diabetes or obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism
  • Animals
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / therapeutic use*
  • Glucagon / therapeutic use
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Obesity / drug therapy*
  • Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use
  • Protein Precursors / therapeutic use


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Protein Precursors
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Glucagon