Endothelial cells have many characteristics in common, but significant morphological and functional differences exist between endothelial cells from different anatomic sites. The specific glomerular endothelial (GEn) cell transcript repertoire is unknown. We sought to determine whether endothelial cells derived from bovine glomeruli display a distinct transcriptional profile compared with bovine aortic endothelium (BAE) under identical conditions. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), which includes known and unknown transcripts, was used to make the comparison. The GEn and BAE SAGE libraries contain 36,844 and 26,452 total tag sequences, respectively. Among 6,524 unique tag sequences represented at least 2 times in the 2 libraries, 2,094 (32%) were matched to well-characterized bovine cDNA sequences (358 tags) or expressed sequence tags (EST). Identification of the human homolog was achieved for 1,035 of these tags. Forty-two tags were differentially expressed in GEn. For 25 of these, the bovine cDNA or EST, and for 17 the human homolog was identified. Among all transcripts with a known bovine and human tag, seven were expressed at levels more than 10-fold higher in cultured GEn cells compared with all other SAGE libraries. The transcript "DKFZp564B076" was localized by in situ hybridization to glomerular endothelium in vivo and was shown by real-time RT-PCR to be highly abundant in glomeruli compared with aortic intima. This work supports the concept that differences in the transcriptional profile of endothelial cells from distinct origins are observed under otherwise equivalent conditions. Furthermore, we have identified the first known transcript predominant in glomerular endothelium in vivo.