Carotenoids activate the antioxidant response element transcription system

Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 Jan;4(1):177-86.


Epidemiologic studies have found an inverse association between consumption of tomato products and the risk of certain types of cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not completely understood. One mechanism that has been suggested is induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. Expression of phase II enzymes is regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) and the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2). In this study, we determined the role of this transcription system in the induction of phase II enzymes by carotenoids. We found that in transiently transfected cancer cells, lycopene transactivated the expression of reporter genes fused with ARE sequences. Other carotenoids such as phytoene, phytofluene, beta-carotene, and astaxanthin had a much smaller effect. An increase in protein as well as mRNA levels of the phase II enzymes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase was observed in nontransfected cells after carotenoid treatment. Ethanolic extract of lycopene containing unidentified hydrophilic derivatives of the carotenoid activated ARE with similar potency to lycopene. The potency of the carotenoids in ARE activation did not correlate with their effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione level, which may indicate that ARE activation is not solely related to their antioxidant activity. Nrf2, which is found predominantly in the cytoplasm of control cells, translocated to the nucleus after carotenoid treatment. Interestingly, part of the translocated Nrf2 colocalized with the promyelocytic leukemia protein in the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies. The increase in phase II enzymes was abolished by a dominant-negative Nrf2, suggesting that carotenoid induction of these proteins depends on a functional Nrf2 and the ARE transcription system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Carotenoids / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • DNA Primers
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Genes, Reporter / drug effects
  • Glutathione Disulfide / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lycopene
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects*
  • Transcriptional Activation / drug effects*


  • Antioxidants
  • DNA Primers
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Carotenoids
  • Lycopene
  • Glutathione Disulfide