Background: Patients with diabetes have an increased incidence and severity of ischemic heart disease, which leads to an increased requirement for coronary revascularization. Comparative information regarding mode of revascularization--coronary artery bypass graft surgery surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)--is limited, mainly confined to a subanalysis of the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization (BARI) trial, suggesting a mortality benefit of CABG over PCI. No prospective trial has specifically compared these modes of revascularization in patients with diabetes.
Objective: The Coronary Artery Revascularisation in Diabetes (CARDia) trial is designed to address the hypothesis that optimal PCI is not inferior to modern CABG as a revascularization strategy for diabetics with multivessel or complex single-vessel coronary disease. The primary end point is a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accident at 1 year.
Method: A total of 600 patients with diabetes are to be randomized to either PCI or CABG, with few protocol restrictions on operative techniques or use of new technology. This gives a power of 80% to detect non-inferiority of PCI assuming that the PCI 1-year event rate is 9%. A cardiac surgeon and a cardiologist must agree that a patient is suitable for revascularization by either technique prior to recruitment into the study. Twenty-one centers in the United Kingdom and Ireland are recruiting patients. Data on cost effectiveness, quality of life, and neurocognitive function are being collected. Long-term (3-5 year) follow-up data will also be collected.