Freeze-drying of protein pharmaceuticals--the application of thermal analysis

Cryo Letters. 2004 Nov-Dec;25(6):389-404.


This review describes the range of thermal analysis techniques that may be used to investigate the key thermal properties of formulations to be freeze-dried and the resultant products. The use of these allows development of cost-effective processing while maintaining optimum product quality.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calorimetry
  • Differential Thermal Analysis
  • Drug Stability
  • Electric Impedance
  • Freeze Drying*
  • Microscopy
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  • Proteins*
  • Stress, Mechanical


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Proteins