G protein polymorphisms in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes

Annu Rev Med. 2005;56:17-28. doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.56.082103.104625.


A common C825T polymorphism in the gene GNB3, which encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, was identified in cell lines from patients with hypertension. The 825T allele is associated with increased intracellular signal transduction. Many population-based and case-control studies in different ethnicities have investigated an association between this polymorphism and hypertension, obesity, and atherosclerosis. A critical assessment of published studies suggests that 825T allele carriers have an increased risk for hypertension combined with features of the metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and obesity. It is anticipated that this polymorphism will be used in clinical practice to better characterize hypertension and for individualized treatment regimens.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Arteriosclerosis / genetics*
  • Cerebral Infarction / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Carrier Screening
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / genetics*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / genetics
  • Obesity / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Statistics as Topic


  • G-protein beta3 subunit
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins