CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms: frequencies in the south Indian population

Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;19(1):101-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00307.x.


The aim of the study was to establish the frequencies of CYP2C9*1, *2, *3 and CYP2C19*1, *2 and *3 in the south Indian population and to compare them with the inter-racial distribution of the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Genotyping analyses of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 were conducted in unrelated, healthy volunteers from the three south Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala, by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The allele frequencies of the populations of these three states were then pooled with our previous genotyping data of Tamilians (also in south India), to arrive at the distribution of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 alleles in the south Indian population. Frequencies of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 alleles and genotypes among various populations were compared using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. The frequencies of CYP2C9*1, *2 and *3 in the south Indian population were 0.88 (95% CI 0.85-0.91), 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.06) and 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.11), respectively. The frequencies of CYP2C9 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3, *2/*2, *2/*3 and *3/*3 were 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82), 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.07), 0.15 (95% CI 0.12-0.18), 0.01 (95% CI 0.0-0.02), 0.01 (95% CI 0.0-0.02) and 0.0, respectively. CYP2C19*1, *2 and *3 frequencies were 0.64 (95% CI 0.60-0.68), 0.35 (95% CI 0.31-0.39) and 0.01 (95% CI 0.0-0.03), respectively. As a result of a significant heterogeneity, the data on CYP2C19 genotype frequencies were not pooled. The frequency of CYP2C9*2 mutant alleles in south Indians was higher than in Chinese and Caucasians, while CYP2C9*3 was similar to Caucasians. CYP2C19*2 was higher than in other major populations reported so far. The relatively high CYP2C19 poor-metabolizer genotype frequency of 12.6% indicates that over 28 million south Indians are poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 substrates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetics, Population
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length


  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • CYP2C9 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • CYP2C19 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19