Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, inherently resistant to conventional treatments, is considered immunogenic. Indeed, partial responses are obtained after treatment with cytokines such as IL-2 or IFN-alpha, suggesting that the immune system may control the tumor growth. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the main subset of peripheral gammadelta lymphocytes, the Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR T lymphocytes, to induce an effective cytotoxic response against autologous primary renal cell carcinoma lines. These gammadelta T cells were expanded ex vivo using a Vgamma9Vdelta2 agonist, a synthetic phosphoantigen called Phosphostim. From 11 of 15 patients, the peripheral Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells were amplified in vitro by stimulating PBMCs with IL-2 and Phosphostim molecule. These expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells express activation markers and exhibit an effector/memory phenotype. They display a selective lytic potential toward autologous primary renal tumor cells and not against renal NC. The lytic activity involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly TCR and NKG2D receptor dependent. Furthermore, an increased expression of MHC class I-related molecule A or B proteins, known ligands of NKG2D, are detected on primary renal tumor cells. Interestingly, from 2 of the 11 positive cultures in response to Phosphostim, expanded-Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells present an expression of killer cell Ig-like receptors, suggesting their prior recruitment in vivo. Unexpectedly, on serial frozen sections from three tumors, we observe a gammadelta lymphocyte infiltrate that was mainly composed of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. These results outline that Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR effectors may represent a promising approach for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.