Of 78 children with cerebral malaria who were referred to the children's emergency room, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, between March 1987 and October 1988, 16 (20.5%) died and 62 (79.5%) survived. The survivors were assessed neurologically over 12-16 months to determine the occurrence, associations and outcome of neurological deficits in cerebral malaria. Neurological deficits occurred in 11 (17.7%) of the patients. The prominent manifestations were cortical blindness, monoparesis and speech deficits. Patients with hypoglycaemia, severe convulsions and prolonged unconsciousness were particularly prone to neurological sequelae. Five children finally recovered completely from their sequelae. These observations show that cerebral malaria is an important cause of neurological deficits in Nigerian children.