Aims: To examine predictors of the current level of substance use and reductions in seriousness of substance use among adults living with HIV.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Setting: Four major metropolitan areas of the United States.
Participants: Three thousand eight hundred six adults living with HIV.
Measurement: Self-reported substance use, depression, and quality of life from audio computer assisted self-interviewing and computer assisted personal interviewing structured assessments.
Findings: Recent substance use of persons living with HIV was classified as frequent (40%), occasional (32%), or abstinent (28%). Participants using drugs at a frequent level identified as heterosexual, had public insurance, and had higher levels of depression. Participants who reduced from a lifetime high seriousness in substance use were female, older, and knew their HIV status for a longer period of time.
Conclusions: Screening and identification of substance use should be included in all treatment settings and community-based organizations serving adults living with HIV.