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Review
, 90 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1), i2-7

The Effect of ADHD on the Life of an Individual, Their Family, and Community From Preschool to Adult Life

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Review

The Effect of ADHD on the Life of an Individual, Their Family, and Community From Preschool to Adult Life

V A Harpin. Arch Dis Child.

Abstract

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may affect all aspects of a child's life. Indeed, it impacts not only on the child, but also on parents and siblings, causing disturbances to family and marital functioning. The adverse effects of ADHD upon children and their families changes from the preschool years to primary school and adolescence, with varying aspects of the disorder being more prominent at different stages. ADHD may persist into adulthood causing disruptions to both professional and personal life. In addition, ADHD has been associated with increased healthcare costs for patients and their family members.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Stages of ADHD. Adapted from Kewley G (1999).6
Figure 2
Figure 2
Emotional and family functioning in children with ADHD compared with controls.13 *Higher scores indicative of greater functioning. CHQ, Child Health Questionnaire.13
Figure 3
Figure 3
Antisocial behaviour in adolescents with ADHD.26 Data primarily represents outcomes in those with conduct disorder as teenagers.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Impact of ADHD in adolescence. Data from Barkley RA;26 (A) Impact at school; (B) impact on health, social, and psychiatric wellbeing.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Driving-related offences in young adults with ADHD and controls. NS, not significant. Data from Barkley RA et al.29
Figure 6
Figure 6
ADHD and comorbidity in Swedish school age children.37 MR, mental retardation; RWD, reading/writing disorder; DC, developmental coordination; ODD, oppositional defiant disorder.

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