Six revolutions in vaccinology

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Jan;24(1):1-9. doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000148933.08301.02.


The history of vaccine development can be divided into 5 waves, produced by revolutions in technology. They are attenuation, inactivation, cell culture of viruses, genetic engineering and methods to induce cellular immune responses. This division is somewhat artificial, and all of the past strategies continue to be useful. I discuss the candidates for the sixth revolution, which include combination vaccines, new adjuvants, proteomics, reverse vaccinology and vaccines for noninfectious diseases, among others. I propose new delivery systems as the most likely to succeed, although humbly admitting that prediction is always subject to error.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biotechnology / methods
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Drug Design*
  • Genetic Engineering / methods
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines / classification
  • Vaccines / history*


  • Vaccines