Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic, mutagenic to somatic and germ cells, and carcinogenic in chronic rodent bioassays. Recent findings of AA in many common starchy foods have sparked renewed interest in determining toxic mechanisms and in understanding the cancer, neurotoxicity, and reproductive risks from typical human exposures. Dosing mice and rats with AA (50 mg/kg) led to presence of glycidamide (GA) in serum and tissues. Furthermore, GA-derived DNA adducts of adenine and guanine were formed in all tissues examined, including both target tissues identified in rodent carcinogenicity bioassays and in non-target tissues. Dosing rats and mice with an equimolar amount of GA typically produced higher levels of DNA adducts than observed with AA. Kinetics of DNA adduct formation and accumulation were measured following oral administration of a single dose of AA (50 mg/kg) or from repeat dosing (1 mg/kg/day), respectively. The formation of these DNA adducts is consistent with previously reported mutagenicity of AA and GA in vitro, which involved reaction of GA with adenine and guanine bases. These results provide strong support for a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity in rodents. The kinetic/biomarker approaches described here may represent a meaningful way to extrapolate cancer risks to actual human exposures from food, which are much lower.