Differences in hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide in the general population with respect to dietary intake, smoking habits and gender

Mutat Res. 2005 Feb 7;580(1-2):157-65. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2004.11.008.


The variation in dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) has been studied through measurement of hemoglobin adduct levels from AA, as a measurement of internal dose, in a sample from the blood bank of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort (n=28,098). The blood donors are well characterised with regard to their food habits, and 142 individuals were selected to obtain highest possible variation in the adduct levels from AA (none, random or high intake of coffee, fried potato, crisp bread and snacks, food items estimated to have high levels of AA). Among 70 non-smokers the AA-adduct levels varied by a factor of 5, and ranged between 0.02 and 0.1 nmol/g, with considerable overlap in AA-adduct levels between the different dietary groups. There was a significant difference between men with high dietary exposure to AA compared to men with low dietary exposure (P=0.04). No such difference was found for women. As expected a higher level (range: 0.03-0.43 nmol/g) of the AA-adduct, due to AA in tobacco smoke, was found in smokers. Smoking women with high dietary exposure to AA had significantly higher AA-adduct levels compared to smoking women with low dietary exposure (P=0.01). No such significant difference was found in smoking men. The median hemoglobin (Hb) adduct level in the randomly selected group of non-smokers was compatible with earlier studies (0.031 nmol/g). The variation in the average internal dose, measured as Hb adducts, was somewhat smaller than estimated for daily intake by food consumption questionnaires in other studies. Thus, the observed relatively narrow inter-individual variation in AA-adduct levels means that estimates of individual dietary AA intake have to be very precise if they should be useful in future cancer epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide* / administration & dosage
  • Acrylamide* / adverse effects
  • Acrylamide* / metabolism
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Food Contamination*
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Population Surveillance*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking* / adverse effects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Hemoglobins
  • Acrylamide