A genetic study of 32 local Chinese, three foreign pig breeds [Duroc (DU), Landrace and Yorkshire], and two types of wild boar (Hainan and Dongbei wild boar) based on 34 microsatellite loci was carried out to clarify the phylogeny of Chinese indigenous pig breeds. The allele frequencies, effective numbers of alleles, and the average heterozygosity within populations were calculated. The results showed that the genetic variability of the Lingao pig was the largest, while the Jiaxing pig was the lowest. The greatest distance between domestic pigs was found between Shanggao and DU pig and the shortest was found between Wuzhishan and Lingao pig, respectively. A neighbour-joining tree constructed from Modified Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances divided Chinese pigs into two clusters; four subclusters were also identified. Our results only partly agree with the traditional types of classification and also provide a new relationship among Chinese local pig breeds. Our data also confirmed that Chinese pig breeds have a different origin from European/American breeds and can be utilized in programmes that aim to maintain Chinese indigenous pig breeds.