Cryptosporidiosis surveillance--United States 1999-2002

MMWR Surveill Summ. 2005 Jan 28;54(1):1-8.


Problem/condition: Cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal illness, is caused by protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium.

Reporting period: 1999-2002.

System description: State and two metropolitan health departments voluntarily reported cases of cryptosporidiosis through CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance.

Results: During 1999-2002, the total number of reported cases of cryptosporidiosis increased from 2,769 for 1999 to 3,787 for 2001 and then decreased to 3,016 for 2002. The number of states reporting cryptosporidiosis cases increased from 46 to 50, and the number of states reporting more than four cases per 100,000 population increased from two to five. A greater number of case reports were received for children aged 1-9 years and for adults aged 30-39 years compared with other age groups. Incidence of cryptosporidiosis was particularly high in the upper Midwest and Vermont. Peak onset of illness occurred annually during early summer through early fall.

Interpretation: Transmission of cryptosporidiosis occurs throughout the United States, with increased diagnosis or reporting occurring in northern states. However, state incidence figures should be compared with caution because individual state surveillance systems have varying capabilities to detect cases. The seasonal peak in age-specific case reports coincides with the summer recreational water season and might reflect increased use of communal swimming venues (e.g., lakes, rivers, swimming pools, and water parks) by young children.

Public health action: Cryptosporidiosis surveillance provides data to educate public health practitioners and health-care providers about the epidemiologic characteristics and the disease burden of cryptosporidiosis in the United States. These data are used to improve reporting of cases, plan prevention efforts, and establish research priorities.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cryptosporidiosis / diagnosis
  • Cryptosporidiosis / epidemiology*
  • Cryptosporidiosis / prevention & control
  • Cryptosporidium / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Population Surveillance
  • United States / epidemiology