Vitamin D intake and status in Irish postmenopausal women

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;59(3):404-10. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602088.


Objective: The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status during late-summer and late-winter/early-spring in postmenopausal Irish women, and whether it was influenced by vitamin D-containing supplement use.

Design: A longitudinal observational study.

Setting: Cork City, Ireland (51 degrees north).

Subjects: A total of 59 apparently healthy, free-living, postmenopausal women aged between 51 and 69 y were sampled during February/March 2002. Of these, 48 and 47 returned during August/September 2002 and February/March 2003, respectively. None of the women were suffering from any medical condition likely to affect vitamin D status. Fasting serums were collected and analysed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) by enzyme immunoassays.

Results: Mean daily intake of vitamin D was 3.2 microg from food sources alone and 5.8 microg when vitamin D-containing supplements were included (P<0.01). Serum 25 (OH) D was significantly lower (P<0.001) during February/March 2002 than both August/September 2002 and February/March 2003. Serum 25 (OH) D was also significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) in women who were vitamin D-containing supplement users than nonusers during all three sampling points. Between 17 and 36% of women had inadequate vitamin D status (defined as serum 25 (OH) D <40 nmol/l) during late-winter, but only 4% had inadequate vitamin D status during late-summer. Serum 25 (OH) D was inversely related to serum PTH (r = -0.33; P = 0.028).

Conclusion: Suboptimal vitamin D status is common in postmenopausal Irish women during winter. Vitamin D supplementation is associated with improved vitamin D status, even during summertime.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ireland / epidemiology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood*
  • Postmenopause / blood*
  • Seasons
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D