Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using the pressure support ventilation with volume guarantee (PSV-VG) as an initial ventilatory mode in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) after surfactant treatment to achieve accelerated weaning of peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and mean airway pressure (MAP).
Study design: Initial 24-hour ventilatory parameters were compared in two groups of preterm infants managed by PSV-VG and the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) mode in a randomized controlled pilot study after surfactant treatment for RDS. A total of 16 babies were randomized to PSV-VG (1198+/-108 g [mean+/-SEM]; 27.9+/-0.6 weeks) and 18 babies to SIMV (birth weight 1055+/-77 g; gestational age 27.4+/-0.5 weeks). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare serial values of PIP and MAP in the two groups.
Results: The PIP and MAP decreased over time (p<0.001) during the first 24 hours after surfactant administration in both groups but the decrease in MAP was faster in the SIMV group compared to PSV-VG group (p=0.035). The median numbers of blood gases during the first 24 hours were four and two in the SIMV and PSV-VG groups, respectively (p<0.001). The overall outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups.
Conclusion: PSV-VG did not offer any ventilatory advantage over SIMV in the initial management of surfactant-treated premature newborns with RDS except for minimizing the number of blood gases.