Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated by a plethora of stimuli. The literature is filled with papers describing the activation of different MAPKs by almost any stimulus or insult imaginable to cells. In this review, we use signal transduction wiring diagrams to illustrate putative upstream regulators for the MAPK kinase kinases, MEKK1, 2, and 3. Targeted gene disruption of MEKK1, 2, or 3 defined phenotypes for each MEKK associated with loss of specific MAPK regulation. Genetic analysis of MEKK function clearly defines specific components of the wiring diagram that require MEKK1, 2, or 3 for physiological responses. We propose that signal transduction network wiring diagrams are valuable tools for hypothesis building and filtering physiologically relevant phenotypic responses from less connected protein relations in the regulation of MAPK pathways.