Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jan 25;(1):CD003999. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003999.pub2.


Background: Several treatments can help smokers make a successful quit attempt, but many initially successful quitters relapse over time. There are interventions designed to help prevent relapse.

Objectives: To assess whether specific interventions for relapse prevention reduce the proportion of recent quitters who return to smoking.

Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction group trials register in September 2004 for studies mentioning relapse prevention or maintenance in title, abstracts or keywords.

Selection criteria: Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of relapse prevention interventions with a minimum follow up of six months. We included smokers who quit on their own, or were undergoing enforced abstinence, or who were participating in treatment programmes. We included trials that compared relapse prevention interventions to a no intervention control, or that compared a cessation programme with additional relapse prevention components to a cessation programme alone.

Data collection and analysis: Studies were screened and data extracted by one author and checked by a second. Disagreements were resolved by discussion or referral to a third author.

Main results: Forty studies met inclusion criteria, but were heterogeneous in terms of populations and interventions. We considered studies that randomized abstainers separately from studies that randomized participants prior to their quit date. We detected no benefit of brief and 'skills-based' relapse prevention interventions for women who had quit smoking due to pregnancy, or for smokers undergoing a period of enforced abstinence. We also failed to detect significant effects in trials in other smokers who had quit on their own or with a formal programme. Amongst trials recruiting smokers and evaluating the effect of additional relapse prevention components we also found no evidence of benefit in any subgroup. We did not find that providing training in skills thought to be needed for relapse avoidance reduced relapse, but most studies did not use experimental designs best suited to the task, and had limited power to detect expected small differences between interventions.

Authors' conclusions: At the moment there is insufficient evidence to support the use of any specific intervention for helping smokers who have successfully quit for a short time to avoid relapse. The verdict is strongest for interventions focusing on identifying and resolving tempting situations, as most studies were concerned with these. There is very little research available regarding other approaches. Until more evidence becomes available it may be more efficient to focus resources on supporting the initial cessation attempt rather than on additional relapse prevention efforts.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Behavior Therapy
  • Chewing Gum
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / therapeutic use
  • Nicotinic Agonists
  • Pregnancy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Prevention*


  • Chewing Gum
  • Nicotinic Agonists
  • Nicotine