Differences in survival have been reported among ethnic groups in the general population. Whether these extend to patients with ESRD is unclear. Using national data, mortality risks of ethnic groups who began dialysis treatment in the United States between May 1, 1995, and July 31, 1997, were compared over 2 yr. Patients were classified as Hispanic or non-Hispanic and then subclassified by race forming six race-specific subgroups: Hispanic white, black, and other and non-Hispanic white, black, and other. Mortality rates for Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics were 19.2 versus 26 per 100 patient-years at risk for those with diabetes and were 14.7 versus 22.7 per 100 patient-years at risk for those without diabetes. For those with diabetes, adjusted mortality risks for Hispanics versus non-Hispanics were 30% lower (95% confidence interval [CI], 26 to 34%). In subgroup analysis, mortality risks for Hispanic whites and Hispanic blacks were 35% (95% CI, 31 to 39%) and 33% (95% CI, 12 to 48%) lower than non-Hispanic whites and were similar in magnitude to those of non-Hispanic blacks (32% lower; 95% CI, 29 to 35%) and non-Hispanic other (33% lower; 95% CI, 28 to 39%). Interestingly, mortality risks for Hispanic others were not significantly different from non-Hispanic whites. For those without diabetes, adjusted mortality risks for Hispanics versus non-Hispanics were 17% lower (95% CI, 9 to 23%), and subgroup analysis yielded similar patterns to those of individuals with diabetes. The survival advantage of Hispanic over non-Hispanic patients who receive chronic dialysis treatment in the United States is not consistent across subgroups and is modified by race. Cultural and genetic differences as well as variation in the access and delivery of care before and while on dialysis may account for these differences.