Cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are well-known sources of intracranial hemorrhage, but can also manifest as other clinical symptoms or remain clinically asymptomatic. The aim was to document and analyze cases of aneurysm or AVM with brain infarction. Survey on 4804 stroke patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland between 1978 and 2000 using the Lausanne Stroke Registry. Twenty patients presented with cerebral aneurysm and 21 with cerebral AVM. Hemorrhage was present in 100% of the AVM and in 75% of the aneurysm patients; in one (5%) of the remaining aneurysm patients, aneurysm and infarction were located in different territories. Infarction associated with Sylvian artery aneurysm was found in three (15%), vertebrobasilar ischemia because of fusiform left vertebral artery aneurysm in one (5%), and dural fistula draining to the distal transversal and left sigmoid sinus associated with a stroke in the territory of the left anterior inferior cerebellar artery in one patient. Ischemic stroke is infrequent, but important, complication in unruptured intracranial aneurysms and AVMs. The early recognition and therapy of these vascular malformations in selected patients can avoid a major neurological deficit or death caused by their rupture.