At 1 year we assessed the neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants undergoing cardiac surgery, seeking to explore the predictive value of perioperative markers of cerebral injury. We prospectively enrolled 47 neurodevelopmentally normal infants prior to planned cardiac surgery. Postoperative monitoring consisted of 10-channel video synchronised, continuous electroencephalography from 6 to 30 h, Doppler assessment of cerebral blood flow in the anterior cerebral artery at 1, 2, 3 and 5 h, and measurement of serum S-100B at 0 and 24 h. Neurodevelopmental assessments were performed using the second edition of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development. Follow-up at 1 year was available on 35 infants. The mean age of these patients at surgery had been 57 +/- 15 days. We observed clinical seizures in 1 patient, with 3 other patients having electroencephalographic abnormalities. At follow-up of 1 year, neurodevelopmental scores were lower than preoperative scores, with mean mental scores changing from 103 +/- 5 to 94 +/- 13 (p = 0.001), and mean motor scores changing from 99 +/- 8 to 89 +/- 20 (p = 0.004). No association was found between electroencephalographic abnormalities, reduced cerebral blood flow, or elevation of serum S-100B levels and impaired neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year. Infants with electroencephalographic abnormalities had elevation of the levels of S-100B in the serum (p = 0.02). At 1 year of follow-up, infants undergoing cardiac surgery demonstrated a reduction in the scores achieved using the second edition of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development. They require ongoing assessment of their progress. Electroencephalographic abnormalities, cerebral blood flow, or levels of S-100B in the serum were not useful perioperative markers for predicting a poor neurodevelopmental outcome in the clinical setting.