Evidence of an acquired T cell-specific deficiency distinct from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a 63-yr-old Japanese female is provided. Recently, this patients suffered from primary invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Skin tests to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) and Aspergillus antigens were negative. Upon admission to our hospital, her lymphocytes were exclusively unresponsive to T cell mitogens (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and OKT 3). The level of cells defined by monoclonal antibodies (CD1, CD2, CD3, CD4, WT31, and CD5) was less than 3%. In contrast, no decrease in the number of red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils or B cells was apparent. Five years ago, the patient had a normal white blood cell and lymphocyte count. However, over the following 4 yr, she developed lymphopenia. With medication, her pulmonary disease recovered, while lymphopenia still continued. The levels of immunoglobulins, complements and enzyme activities (adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase) were normal. Moreover, several tests for HIV (ELISA and Western bolt) were negative suggesting that the T cell-specific deficiency was not a congenital immunodeficiency or AIDS but rather a new type of acquired immunodeficiency.