Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a mammalian bombesin (BN)-like peptide that binds with high affinity to the GRP receptor (GRP-R). Previous behavioral studies using mice and rats showed that the GRP/GRP-R system mediates learning and memory by modulating neurotransmitter release in the local GABAergic network of the amygdala and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). To date, the precise distribution of GRP-R in the brain has not been elucidated. We used a synthetic peptide derived from mouse GRP-R to generate affinity-purified antibodies to GRP-R and used immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of GRP-R in the mouse brain. The specificity of anti-GRP-R antibody was confirmed in vitro using COS-7 cells transiently expressing GRP-R and in vivo using GRP-R-deficient and wild-type mouse brain sections. GRP-R immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the isocortex, hippocampal formation, piriform cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, and brain stem. In particular, GRP-R immunoreactivity was observed in the lateral (LA), central, and basolateral amygdaloid (BLA) nuclei and NTS, which are important regions for memory performance. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry demonstrated that subpopulations of GRP-R are present in GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Consequently, GRP-R immunoreactivity was observed in the GABAergic neurons of the limbic region. These anatomical results provide support for the idea that the GRP/GRP-R system mediates memory performance by modulating neurotransmitter release in the local GABAergic network.