Prior to the initiation of DNA replication, chromosomes must establish a biochemical mark that permits the recruitment in S phase of the DNA replication machinery that copies DNA. The process of chromosome replication in eukaryotes also must be coordinated with segregation of the duplicated chromosomes to daughter cells during mitosis. Protein complexes that utilize ATP coordinate events at origins of DNA replication and later they participate in the initiation of DNA replication. In eukaryotes, some of these proteins also play a part in later processes that ensure accurate inheritance of chromosomes in mitosis, including spindle attachment of chromosomes, accurate duplication of centrosomes and cytokinesis. A perspective of how ATP-dependent proteins accomplish this task in eukaryotes is discussed.