Although there are well-established clinical human milk banks in the United States, there are no milk banks specifically intended to foster research on human milk. The authors' goal was to establish a milk bank with a core data set to support exploratory and hypothesis-driven studies on human milk. Donations to the Cincinnati Children's Research Human Milk Bank are accepted within the context of ongoing, hypothesis-driven research or on an ad hoc basis. Donors must give informed consent, and scientists wishing to use the samples must have Institutional review board approval for their use. Development of more research human milk banks can potentially provide resources for multidisciplinary collaboration and advance the study of human milk and lactation.