Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the neonatal impact of a methadone maintenance program in pregnancy, and the social resources of the families involved.
Methods: Descriptive analysis of neonatal data in live births after 24 weeks of gestation in pregnant women enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. The data of 86 babies were analyzed.
Results: Median gestational age was 38 (0)/(7) (31-41) weeks; 21 babies (24%) were premature. Median birthweight was 2662 (1340-4050) g; 27% of babies were growth retarded (<3rd centile), and 13% had microcephaly (<3rd centile). Sixty-two percent developed abstinence syndrome requiring pharmacological treatment for a median 47 days. Child Protective Services (CPS) were involved in 56% of cases, and 42% of newborns required placement outside the mother's home.
Conclusions: Babies born to women on methadone had a fourfold higher incidence of prematurity, a ninefold higher incidence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and a fourfold higher incidence of microcephaly compared with the normal population. Sixty-two percent required pharmacological treatment for abstinence syndrome and 42% required placement.