A fundamental question in memory research is how our brains can form enduring memories. In humans, memories of everyday life depend initially on the medial temporal lobe system, including the hippocampus. As these memories mature, they are thought to become increasingly dependent on other brain regions such as the cortex. Little is understood about how new memories in the hippocampus are transformed into remote memories in cortical networks. However, recent studies have begun to shed light on how remote memories are organized in the cortex, and the molecular and cellular events that underlie their consolidation.