Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been proposed to serve as a satiety signal in animals and humans. To further explore the role of CCK in humans, the effect on satiety and eating behavior of a specific CCK-receptor antagonist, loxiglumide, that preferentially inhibits peripheral (CCK-A) receptors was investigated. In a randomized, blind, four-period latin square design, 10 subjects received intravenous saline (placebo) or loxiglumide (10 mg/kg per hour) with concomitant intrajejunal perfusions of isotonic saline or fat (containing 50% corn oil and 3% albumin). Food intake and plasma CCK concentrations were assessed, and subjects scored their feelings of hunger and fullness in paired experiments. In placebo-treated subjects, the duration of the meal was shorter during fat perfusion (30 +/- 2 minutes vs. 35 +/- 2 minutes; P less than 0.01; mean +/- SEM). The amount of food intake was reduced (361 +/- 31 g vs. 454 +/- 35 g; P less than 0.05), and fluid ingestion was inhibited (490 +/- 31 mL vs. 625 +/- 38 mL; P less than 0.01). Loxiglumide did not affect any parameter and did not change the pattern of responses. In loxiglumide-treated subjects there was a 4-5-fold elevation in plasma CCK levels. These results confirm that jejunal infusion of lipid reduces the size of the meal and stimulates early satiety. The data imply that these effects are not mediated through peripheral endogenous CCK under these conditions.