Serbia and Montenegro is an intermediate TB burden country with 21/100,000 populations sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence rate of 37/100,000 in total. The aim of this article was to explain how the well known rule: "There is as much TB as much we look for it" applies in Serbian settings at the beginning of the 21th century, in the light of Global Partnership to Stop TB: the first target, case detection rate of 70% by 2005. To achieve the target, each physician must be aware that there are persons at higher risk for developing TB and that they must be detected by primary health care facilities or special institutions. Immunodeficiency due to any reason, chronic disease or condition, and especially recent M. tuberculosis infection, make infected persons more liable to develop TB. Apart from TB patients traces contact following the "stone-in-the-pond" principle, with long-term routine in Serbia, it is necessary to perform a screening of symptomatics, in defined risk groups: refugees and internally displaced people in collective 'centers (700,000 or 10% of Serbian population), mentally disabled persons in asylums, Roma (Gypsies) in slams (450,000), prisoners and elderly under protection and care of collective institutions. The screening is based on examination of symptomatics. Radiographs are useful, but bacteriological diagnostic is the golden standard in TB diagnosis. Mass radiography is not recommended due to cost/effect ratio. Cured TB patients might contribute to TB detection rate increase, especially in risk groups. Population education on TB symptoms is in progress.