Renal transplantation is the best available therapy for patients with end-stage renal failure. Urologists are often consulted regarding pretransplant evaluation and treatment of potential renal transplant recipients. Frequently the urologist is the primary surgeon in the transplant unit. This review highlights the importance of performing a comprehensive urological assessment before renal transplantation. A retrospective review of the urological and transplant literature using Medline was performed from 1976 to 2002, searching for renal transplantation and its association with urological cancers and urinary tract malformations. The pretransplant urological assessment aims to diagnose, treat, and optimize any preexisting urological disease. On occasion, certain urological diseases may not be obvious or may not have contributed to the progression to end-stage renal failure such as occult urinary tract neoplasms, urinary calculus disease, or benign prostatic hyperplasia. A thorough evaluation of the urinary tract prior to renal transplantation is mandatory to avoid unforeseen problems occurring posttransplant. If this assessment is consistently adhered to, only in very rare circumstances does a potential recipient have to be denied the opportunity of receiving an allograft based on a preexisting urological disease.