We tested a social-cognitive intervention to influence contraceptive practices among men living in rural communes in Vietnam. It was predicted that participants who received a stage-targeted program based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) would report positive movement in their stage of motivational readiness for their wife to use an intrauterine device (IUD) compared to those in a control condition. A quasi-experimental design was used, where the primary unit for allocation was villages. Villages were allocated randomly to a control condition or to two rounds of intervention with stage-targeted letters and interpersonal counseling. There were 651 eligible married men in the 12 villages chosen. A significant positive movement in men's stage of readiness for IUD use by their wife occurred in the intervention group, with a decrease in the proportions in the precontemplation stage from 28.6 to 20.2% and an increase in action/maintenance from 59.8 to 74.4% (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed higher pros, lower cons and higher self-efficacy for IUD use by their wife as a contraceptive method (P < 0.05). Interventions based on social-cognitive theory can increase men's involvement in IUD use in rural Vietnam and should assist in reducing future rates of unwanted pregnancy.