Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection and has led to the development of a common model of immunity. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the immune response to infection with Chlamydia spp. and how this information is improving the prospects for development of a vaccine against infection with C. trachomatis.