Transport of organic cations (OC) is important for the recycling of endogenous OC and also a necessary step for detoxification of exogenous OC in the body. Even though the identification and characterisation of numerous OC transporters in recent years has allowed the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying OC transport, elucidation of the regulation of this transport is just beginning. This review summarises the general properties of OC transport and then analyses the literature on the regulation of these processes. Studies on short- and long-term regulation of OC transport are considered separately. Important aspects of short-term regulation have been clarified and the regulatory pathways of several OC transporters have been characterised. Short-term regulation appears to be transporter subtype-, tissue- and species-dependent and to involve transporter phosphorylation. Transporter phosphorylation may alter the affinity for substrates or/and expression on the plasma membrane. Even though several studies have shown long-term regulation of OC transport, the pathophysiological meaning of these changes are not well understood. In this case, regulation seems to be subtype-, tissue- and gender-specific. Further research is necessary to clarify this important issue of regulation of OC transport.