ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone press-fit fixation: 10-year clinical results

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 May;13(4):248-55. doi: 10.1007/s00167-004-0606-5. Epub 2005 Feb 3.


Multiple techniques for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are currently available, most of which use hardware or resorbable material for fixation of the graft inside or outside the bony tunnels. In this study, the long-term results of 95 patients at a mean follow-up of 10.7 years were assessed. The ACL was reconstructed using a patellar tendon autograft with a press-fit fixation. Between 1987 and 1991, 159 patients were operated by the senior author (PH), 95 could be seen for follow-up. Evaluation included detailed history, physical examination, functional knee ligament testing, KT-1000 arthrometer testing, the IKDC standard evaluation form, Lysholm, Flandry, and Tegner scoring systems. Radiographs were obtained preoperatively and at follow-up to assess the grade of osteoarthritis. Subjectively, none of the patients that were seen for follow-up complained of instability. Numbness of the skin was reported by 54% of the patients and pain during knee walking was described as mild in 25% and severe in 2%. The mean Flandry score was 243 (max: 280). The mean Lysholm score was 93.2 at follow-up and the Tegner activity level was 6.8 preinjury and 6.0 postoperatively. The average KT-1000 side-to-side difference was 1.8 mm on a manual maximum pull. The IKDC knee scoring revealed 84% of the patients with normal (A) or nearly normal (B) knee joints, 15% were (C), 1% was (D). Radiographically, joint space narrowing was found in 19%, 15%, and 25% for the patello-femoral, medial, and lateral compartments, respectively. Meniscus surgery was a determining factor. This study presents long-term clinical data on a press-fit fixation for ACL reconstruction. Results were excellent and good in more then 80% of the followed patients. The advantages of the press-fit fixation are direct bone-to-bone healing of the graft, decreased donor site morbidity, cost-effectiveness and ease for revision surgery.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
  • Arthroscopy
  • Athletic Injuries / surgery*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patella
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tendons / transplantation*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Treatment Outcome