Pollution status of swimming pools in south-south zone of south-eastern Nigeria using microbiological and physicochemical indices

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004 Jun;35(2):488-93.


Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of swimming pools in South Eastern states of Nigeria (Akwa Ibom and Cross River) were investigated. The bacterial isolates included Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while fungal isolates were Penicillium sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus versicolor Fusarium sp, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Mucor sp, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Absidia sp. The total viable count of microorganims in Ibeno (B) and Uyo (E) swimming pools were 6 x 10(6) cfu/ml and for Calabar (H) swimming pool, 3.3 x 10(7) cfu/ml. The total coliform counts were 10(6) cfu/100 ml for Calabar (G) swimming pools and 2 x 10(7) cfu/100 ml for Calabar (H) swimming pools while the fungal count ranged from 5 x 10(6) cfu/ml to 3 x 10(7) cfu/ml. Physical and chemical parameters known to be hazardous to health were also identified. The presence of high levels of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria (E. coli) revelaed that the swimming pools have not met the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for recreational waters. The swimming pools constitute a serious public health hazard.

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus cereus / isolation & purification
  • Clostridium perfringens / isolation & purification
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Disinfection / standards*
  • Enterococcus faecalis / isolation & purification
  • Fresh Water / analysis*
  • Fresh Water / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Nigeria
  • Risk Factors
  • Swimming Pools / standards*
  • Water Microbiology*
  • Water Pollution / analysis*