The safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy: a multicentre prospective controlled study

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Feb 1;21(3):269-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02306.x.


Background: Proton pump inhibitors are used to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux and peptic ulcers. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a common condition in pregnancy. Human pregnancy experience with lansoprazole or pantoprazole is very limited. More data exist on the safety of omeprazole in pregnancy.

Aim: To assess the safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy.

Methods: The rate of major anomalies was compared between pregnant women exposed to omeprazole, lanzoprazole, or pantoprazole and a control group counselled for non-teratogens. The study design is a multicentre (n = 8), prospective, controlled study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services.

Results: We followed up 295 pregnancies exposed to omeprazole [233 in the first trimester (T1)], 62 to lansoprazole (55 in T1) and 53 to pantoprazole (47 in T1), and compared pregnancy outcome to that of 868 European Network of Teratology Information Services controls. The rate of major congenital anomalies did not differ between the exposed and control groups [omeprazole nine of 249 (3.6%), lansoprazole two of 51 (3.9%) and pantoprazole one of 48 (2.1%) vs. controls 30 of 792 = 3.8%]. No differences were found when exposure was limited to the first trimester after exclusion of genetic, cytogenetic or infectious anomalies.

Conclusions: This study suggests that proton pump inhibitors do not represent a major teratogenic risk in humans.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles
  • Abnormalities, Drug-Induced
  • Adult
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Lansoprazole
  • Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives*
  • Omeprazole / therapeutic use
  • Pantoprazole
  • Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy Trimester, First
  • Prospective Studies
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors*
  • Sulfoxides / therapeutic use


  • 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Sulfoxides
  • Lansoprazole
  • Pantoprazole
  • Omeprazole