Adenoma patients are considered to be at an elevated risk for colorectal cancer, even after their adenomas have been removed. The aim of this study was to estimate the colorectal cancer risk after colonoscopic polypectomy compared with age- and gender-matched general population controls. Colorectal cancer incidence was studied in 553 consecutive patients without cancer whose adenomas were colonoscopically removed in the endoscopy department of a general hospital. The colorectal cancer relative risk in these patients was 0.9 (0.3-2.0). A literature search was performed to identify all published studies on relative colorectal cancer risk after polypectomy. The relative risk estimates in seven other studies ranged from 0.2 (0.1-0.6) to 1.3 (0.6-2.3). The difference can, be explained partially by the inclusion or exclusion of patients with large sessile polyps and other factors. Our review shows that colorectal cancer risk after colonoscopic polypectomy does not exceed the risk in the general population.