Macrophages recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by Toll-like receptor 4 and activate inflammatory responses by inducing expression of various genes. TLR4 activates intracellular signaling pathways via TIR domain containing adaptor molecules, MyD88, and Toll/IL-1 domain containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF). Although macrophages lacking MyD88 or TRIF showed impaired cytokine production, activation of intracellular signaling molecules still occurred in response to LPS in these cells. In the present study, we implemented cDNA microarrays to investigate the contribution of MyD88 and TRIF in gene expression induced by LPS stimulation. Whereas wild-type macrophages induced 148 genes in response to LPS, macrophages lacking both MyD88 and TRIF did not upregulate any genes in response to LPS. Surprisingly, 80 LPS-inducible genes were redundantly regulated by either MyD88 or TRIF. In contrast, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were critically regulated by MyD88 or TRIF alone. Genes critically regulated by MyD88 alone tend to be induced quickly after LPS stimulation and regulated by mRNA stability as well as transcription. Genes known to be induced by type I interferons were simply dependent on TRIF for their expression. Taken together, MyD88 and TRIF play both redundant and distinct roles in LPS-induced gene expression.