Intranasal immunisation with defective adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus E2 glycoprotein protects against airborne challenge with virulent virus

Vaccine. 2005 Feb 18;23(13):1615-23. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.06.056.


There is no vaccine licensed for human use to protect laboratory or field workers against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Infection of these groups is most likely to occur via the airborne route and there is evidence to suggest that protection against airborne infection may require high antibody levels and the presence of antibody on the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract. Recombinant defective type 5 adenoviruses, expressing the E3E26K structural genes of VEEV were examined for their ability to protect mice against airborne challenge with virulent virus. After intranasal administration, good protection was achieved against the homologous serogroup 1A/B challenge virus (strain Trinidad donkey). There was less protection against enzootic serogroup II and III viruses, indicating that inclusion of more than one E3E26K sequence in a putative vaccine may be necessary. These studies confirm the potential of recombinant adenoviruses as vaccine vectors for VEEV and will inform the development of a live replicating adenovirus-based VEEV vaccine, deliverable by a mucosal route and suitable for use in humans.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviruses, Human / genetics*
  • Adenoviruses, Human / immunology
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / administration & dosage
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics*
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Defective Viruses / classification
  • Defective Viruses / genetics*
  • Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine / genetics*
  • Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine / immunology*
  • Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine / pathogenicity
  • Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine / immunology
  • Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine / prevention & control
  • Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine / virology
  • Humans
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Serotyping
  • Species Specificity
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / genetics
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / immunology
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Viral Vaccines / genetics*
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology
  • Virulence
  • Virus Replication / genetics
  • Virus Replication / immunology


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Viral Vaccines
  • glycoprotein E2, equine encephalitis virus