The effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes after coronary artery revascularization remains controversial. We studied 1,203 patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and underwent stenting (n = 599) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; n = 604) in the Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study. Patients were assigned to 1 of 3 groups according to BMI: <25, 25 to 30, and >30 kg/m(2). At 3-year follow-up, the incidence of death, cerebrovascular events, or myocardial infarction was similar for these BMI categories regardless of the revascularization technique used. Rates of repeat revascularization procedures were significantly higher among patients who had been randomized to stenting but were similar across BMI groups. For patients who had been randomized to undergo CABG, there was a significant decrease in repeat revascularization procedures in obese patients (p = 0.03). Among patients who underwent stenting, BMI had no effect on the 3-year combined end point of rate of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events. Among patients who underwent CABG, major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event rates were significantly lower for patients who were obese (11%) or overweight (16%) compared with patients who had a normal BMI (24%; p = 0.008). Thus, in a large cohort of patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and underwent surgical or percutaneous revascularization, BMI had no effect on 3-year outcome of those who underwent stenting. Conversely, among patients who underwent CABG, those who were overweight or obese had a significantly better outcome than did those who had a normal BMI with regard to survival without major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, mainly due to lower rates of repeat revascularization procedures.