Prevalence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in schoolchildren: the Karlsburg Type 1 Diabetes Risk Study

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1037:114-7. doi: 10.1196/annals.1337.017.


This study attempts to assess the prevalence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in a general population in the northeastern part of Germany, with emphasis on autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2A), and insulin (IAA) by radioassays >/= 98th percentile, and AAbs binding on pancreatic sections (ICA) by immunofluorescence >/= 10 Juvenile Diabetes Foundation units. From a total of 11,840 schoolchildren tested for all four AAbs, 821 (6.9%) children were positive for single AAbs, whereas 83 (0.7%) had multiple AAbs. If the primary screening were performed by testing GADA/IA-2A/IAA, 94% of probands with single AAbs and all with multiple AAbs would be identified. The combinations of GADA/IA-2A, GADA/IAA, and IA-2A/IAA would identify 97.6, 98.8, and 85.5% of probands with multiple AAbs, respectively. Thus, combined AAb screening in the general population identifies those probands at risk for diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Autoantibodies / analysis*
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genetic Testing
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / immunology
  • Radioimmunoassay
  • Risk Factors


  • Autoantibodies
  • islet cell antibody
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase